Part 3

Chapter 10 - REVIEW - Organizations

We have now moved on from the study of simple group relationships and their relationships to that of organizations. We have identified the fact that organisations, like other groups, depend on specialisation and persuasion. The implication is that specialisation increases efficiency, – but we have to be aware that this is only true up to a limited extent. Specialisation also can lead to lack of flexibility, and in the dynamically changing Management Universe lack of flexibility can cause disaster.

            We have noted that power is an important factor both on the inside and outside of organizations. We have also considered the concept of organizational motivation, and how this can be related to that of individuals. The implications of this are that the concepts of motivational objectives and boundaries (which we examined in earlier chapters) affect the behaviour of organizations as well as individuals. Unfortunately the rigid ‘Lifeboat Regulations’ attitude is widespread among many large organizations, particularly banks and other financial corporations.

            We have also discussed the use of case studies as examples of successful organizations and their management, and seen that yesterday’s shining examples can quickly turn into to today’s basket cases. This rather suggests that case studies are not generally a good basis from which to derive a general theory of management. However, we have looked at a most unusual organisation — the Fire Service, which can be regarded as a model of sound management principles with an exemplary record of consistently high performance. It may be argued, somewhat cynically, that there is no motivation or reward for the chief executives of such organizations to compete for commercial success or profit. However, equally cynically, it may be argued that neither are they likely to be found guilty of massive fraud or incompetence and the subsequent catastrophic failure of their organizations.

The organisation of an exploration expedition requires intellectual motivation, — investigation, interpretation, and communication. It requires existential motivation, — the need to subsist, deal with adversaries, and maintain territory. It also needs to satisfy relational needs, — familial, societal, transactional, and spiritual.

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