Part 4

CHAPTER 14 - REVIEW - Management Integrity                

Integrity is a concept that in the Management Universe is rarely if ever admitted as a topic for discussion. It involves a set of highly controversial concepts derived from such sensitive sources as religion, politics and philosophy. These are all subjects that most organisations attempt to avoid unless forced to do so, either by public concern or legislation. Many organisations perceive these areas as interfering with their freedom to manage their operations in whatever way they think fit. Their usual response to criticisms of lack of integrity is to insist that self-regulation is the most effective solution. Statutory regulation is regarded with hostility, although in practice is usually the only effective curb to the excesses of unscrupulous organisations.

This chapter has confronted a subject that is rarely considered in management texts or business schools. It is a subject that is unavoidably controversial, but nevertheless it is of fundamental importance in the Management Universe as elsewhere in the world in which we live.

Even if we understand nothing else of management, we should understand the meaning of, and be able to accept the necessity for, the essential components of Integrity, — Enlightenment, Morality, and Divulgence.

A judge needs to be a model of integrity. Integrity requires Enlightenment – wisdom insight and Judgement, Morality – Compassion, propriety, and respect for the sanctity of the law, and Divulgence – discretion, eloquence and explanation to the jurors and the court.

CHAPTER 15 - REVIEW - Management Control

We have shown the way in which situations can be analysed systematically by using appropriate parts of a General Theory. We have also seen how the failure of management to apply a critical and impartial examination of situations in the Management Universe can result in real-life tragedy and financial disaster.

We have looked at diagnostic techniques through which the General Theory can be applied. It allows problems to be examined logically and critically. Equally importantly, the same diagnostic technique can be applied to ensuring that the solutions apply the right resources, activities and controls. Solutions need to solve problems, — not become part of them. There is no point in hiring an electronics engineer to fix a leaking bathtub. Similarly, in the Management Universe it is rare that financial analysts or management consultants can change weaknesses that are due to unsatisfactory management behaviour, attitudes, or cultures. We have seen that frequently the most difficult task for managers is not how to solve problems, — but how to implement solutions.

In this chapter we have now reached the end of the General Theory. At the end of a General Theory, like the end of the rainbow, there may not be a pot full of gold, — but at least the observer may have seen most if not all of the possible colours that exist. The observer may also be able to recognise the relationship between colours more easily when next they are encountered.

Robinson Crusoe addressed the Crucial Issue of danger from wild animals. His Possibilities were either to hide up in a thorny tree, or to build a wooden fence. There were plenty of trees, but his axes were all blunt. He had a grindstone — but no way of turning it. His Solution was to find out how to drive the grindstone — this took him a week. It took him two days to sharpen his axes. He was then able to resolve the crucial issue and solve the problem of protecting himself against wild animals. In the meantime, at night, he slept uncomfortably in a thorny tree. Some months later he discovered that there were no wild animals on the island.

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