CHAPTER 7 - REVIEW - Processes and Systems

In this chapter we have now reached a point at which we can begin to see the way in which resources and activities form processes and systems. Systems analysis is a well-established discipline, and in this chapter we introduce some of the basic concepts. We are able to represent systems using simple diagrams and to identify various types of system. We can also express the general form of processes conveniently in equations. We cannot manipulate these equations, — they simply provide a shorthand for those who may find them easier to remember than diagrams.

We have identified different types of processes and systems, and shown the differences and implications in the way that they operate. Most importantly we have identified the concept of consolidative systems in which the systems provide internal growth that increases their size or power in an organic way. It might be tempting to call such systems ‘organic’, but this might be interpreted as applying only to biological systems. In practice it applies amongst other systems to every successful business enterprise.

Finally we have looked at competition between systems and possible alternative ways in which systems may respond.

CHAPTER 8 - REVIEW - System Controls

In this chapter we have considered the concepts and components of control of processes and systems. We have looked at the various types of control, and identified their main characteristics. Finally we have noted the importance of forecasting in controlling any system

The control of processes and systems is an essential part of management, and understanding the characteristics of the various types are of vital importance in managing effectively. Many organisations and regimes ranging from totalitarian communisms and multinational corporations to authoritarian owners of small businesses consider that prescriptive hierarchical controls are the only way to manage. The most important implication of such an approach is that it presumes that all events and situations can be anticipated, and will respond to controls and rules that have been laid down. Unfortunately, real life rarely is quite like that. The more rigid such controls become, the less effective they are in responding to unexpected circumstances. The usual reaction to failure of such controls is to blame the people operating them rather than those responsible for the design and imposition of them..




How do the parts work and move and relate to one another?

7   Processes and Systems

8   System Controls

9   Evaluation and Implementation

10 Organizations

11  Operational Procedures and Communication

However fast they went, they never seemed to pass anyththing. 'I wonder if all the things move along with us?' puzzled Alice. And the Queen seemed to guess her thoughts, for she cried 'Faster! Don't try to talk!'.

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