ACTIVITY REQUISITES

MOTIVATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Motivational objectives consist of the satisfaction of needs, the exclusion of hazards, and the avoidance of discomfort.

In addition to the satisfaction of needs, living creatures attempt to avoid hazards in order to survive. They also usually attempt to avoid discomfort. In general terms the satisfaction of needs, the exclusion of hazards, and the avoidance of discomfort can be regarded as forming a hierarchical set of motivational objectives. However, the order within this hierarchy depends primarily on the environment and the circumstances. In normal situations the satisfaction of needs is the major motivational objective, followed by the exclusion of hazards and the avoidance of discomfort. In situations of danger the exclusion of hazards is of prime importance, and takes precedence over the satisfaction of needs and the avoidance of discomfort. In situations where needs are satisfied and no hazards are apparent, the avoidance of discomfort may be regarded as being of most importance.

Needs may be regarded as having a scale and direction in time. Some needs may be regarded as vital and immediate – such as the satisfaction of hunger and thirst. Other needs may be regarded as long term, and desirable rather than essential – such as a happy and contented retirement from work. Hazards may be regarded as having a negative direction, approaching with a scale similar to those of needs. Death may be regarded as a large and immediate hazard by a soldier in a battle, but as a long-term relatively unimportant hazard by a young office worker. Discomfort may be viewed in similar terms.

Motivational Objectives

Early stage-coach travellers satisfied their motivational objectives by satisfying their needs for transport. They excluded hazards (of being robbed by highway men) by having an armed guard on the coach. They avoided discomfort by wrapping up warmly, and stopping for breaks at local coaching inns for food and refreshment.

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