Descriptions of observations derived from inspection may be based on facts, opinions, or beliefs.

Descriptions, criteria and concepts derived from inspection are usually based on observations. These descriptions may be based on facts, opinions, or beliefs. Facts are unarguable, such as night follows day. Opinions are based usually on facts, but are open to debate and argument and careful consideration. Opinions may change, particularly if new facts are revealed, or situations change. In contrast, beliefs are usually impossible to prove or disprove, do not rely on facts, and may be true or untrue. They may also be impossible to dispel in a person’s lifetime. Whilst creating descriptions based on observations it is often difficult to separate facts from people’s opinions and beliefs.


The second part of evaluation is the creation of decisions which are derived from the inspection of the process.

The the second and final part of evaluation is the decisions on what action to take as a result of the inspection. The decisions derived from the inspection of objectives may be to seek to modify or find new objectives. The decisions that are made inspecting the operation of the processes and events in the systems need to be evaluated to determine whether they achieved the objectives that have been identified, and whether they are effective, or could be improved. If the inspection fails to produce a decision, then there is little point in the evaluation. The decision may simply be to continue as before, but this is still a valid decision that has been arrived at positively as a logical outcome of the evaluation. It should be noted that this is in sharp contrast to the ‘management by inertia’ method – of continuing as before for no particular reason, and without evaluation or other consideration.



It is a fact that 2 + 2 equals 4. It is an opinion that the Greek civilisation was more cultured that that of the Roman Empire. For over two centuries after Copernicus and Galileo had demonstrated otherwise, the Roman Church imposed the belief that the sun went round the earth.


Each of the four stages of identification, selection, measurement, and comparison should be applied to the inspection of the objectives and resources, activities, and events within the system. The outcome of this inspection is to produce decisions which lead to implementation.

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