Management is practised at various levels within a universe that contains organisations, systems, processes, activities, resources, and their controls.

Activities and resources exist and events occur to them within a universe that may be considered at various levels. The scale and precision of the management depends on the level at which it is practised, the scale of the resources, the activities, and the controls that are applied within this universe.

Discovering the Elemental Issues

In order to resolve management issues and problems it is necessary first to identify their essential components. All management systems within the Management Universe consist of only three essential components:

  • Resources

  • Activities

  • Controls

The progressive investigation of these management systems components enables the final elements of any management issue or problem to be identified, and all irrelevant factors to be eliminated. This then enables the most rational and practical solution to be obtained.

In order to examine management issues and problems it is necessary to begin by selecting which of the three components, resources, activities and controls, is most relevant, and then to investigate that component in more detail. Each component can be broken down into further components, each of which is associated with particular characteristics and aspects.

In order to examine and understand management issues and problems it is necessary to understand fully the principles described on this page. This is the cornerstone and foundation upon which the General Theory is built.


In the Eighteenth Century the Management Universe of Great Britain was the world. At a Strategical level The King's Admiralty controlled and managed the organisation of the Royal Navy. At a Tactical level Admirals controlled and managed systems of fleets of ships. At an Operational level captains controlled and managed the processes of undertaking voyages that involved the resources of ships, sailors, and all necessary equipment and materials. They carried out the activities of sailing and fighting battles which led to the events of victory or defeat.

Note :  Italic titles indicate control levels.

This Management Universe Chart shows the state of the universe at a moment in time. Such a moment may be described as an event, and each change in the universe is part of a continuum of events.

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